Chromogenic substrates are peptides that react with proteolytic enzymes under the formation of color. Chromogenic substrates are made up of a protecting group, amino acid residue(s), side-chain modification if applicable, and the chromophore. The stereochemistry of some substrates may be designated. For example, in the Chromogenix substrate S-2222, the protecting group is a benzoyl group, the amino acid residue is Ile (isoleucine – a non-polar hydrophobic amino acid), the side chain modification is Glu(g-OR)- where R is 50% H (hydrogen) and CH3 (methyl group). The P2 and P1 amino acid residues are Gly and Arg, respectively, and the chromophore is pNA (para-nitroaniline).